Migration flows are constantly changing and highly dynamic. The reasons for migration are as diverse as the migrants themselves, who cannot be classed into one homogenous group of people; migrants are diverse and so are the reasons for migrating, which range from persecution for political, sexual or ethnic belonging to fleeing war or poverty, to name a few. Migrants are often perceived as a burden to the recipient countries and the arising challenges are attributed to the new arrivals. However, the opportunities migrants represent and the adequate response from governments on the national and local levels, which often determine the “success” of migrants, are overlooked and disappear in the heated debate.
Undoubtedly though, the impact of migration on people is significant and takes place on at least three levels. There are notable consequences for the future and prosperity of the nation from which the migrants flee and this impacts those who remain; the migrants themselves are profoundly impacted; and thirdly, the impact on countries where migrants remain at the end of their journey is also paramount. The governance of migration is a decisive factor that can sway whether migration becomes a success story or not. This new background report explores the challenges and opportunities countries in the European Union face, explores the numbers of how many migrants are in each EU nation, and crucially provides concrete steps that are key to enable successful integration of the newly arrived. For example, the report states:
The full integration of migrants within a given society depends on the time that the reception system takes to provide regular documents recognizing the legal status, the education degrees and their social needs, and the time to provide them with a job.