Migration has a significant impact on the world’s macroeconomic and social systems. There is an urgent need for illegal migration flows to be stopped, they have led to much suffering and human rights violations. At the same time, legal migration and mobility opportunities can be seen as instruments for poverty extermination, a mechanism to decrease inequalities, and for better international cooperation. The UN’s 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development recognizes the role of migration and migrants to foster sustainable development.
The total number of third-country nationals who legally reside in the territory of the Republic of Bulgaria has steadily increased in recent years. The mobility of the population is increasing and the need for employment opportunities has also increased. The ratio of immigrants and emigrants has caused a reduction in the net migration rate of -2.2 in 2010 and of -0.7 in 2019. To counter this trend, measures are taken to create opportunities and encourage employers and to attract qualified specialists in Bulgaria. The integration of third-country nationals who have received international protection (i.e., the integration of refugees) is much more difficult in this context. Due to the level of development in Bulgaria and the lack of opportunities that offer good social benefits combined with the attitude of the local population towards the refugees, Bulgaria is a transit country for asylum seekers where “80-90% of the applicants for protection in Bulgaria, continuing or planning to continue their journey to Western Europe”.